雅思阅读List of headings解题策略及真题解析

段落主旨配对题, 即List of Headings。这类题要求考生给段落找小标题。重在考查考生段落的归纳概括能力和对全文的整体的把握能力。这两种能力不仅需要考生的夯实的英语语言基 本功,还需要有良好的阅读逻辑思维能力。所以, 这种题型在众多考生看来是比较头痛的题目.传统的做题思路和技巧是寻找段落中的首句或末句, 然而根据近年来的考试趋势, 常规的解题思路不能完全应付, 有些段落发展以及正确选项的归纳并非如考生所期待的. 本文将详细介绍应对标题配对的策略.

中西方思维方式差异

汉 语的思维是先分述后总结的所谓螺旋式,即save the best for the last. 而英语思维是先总述后展开的所谓直线形的模式,即say what you want to say, and then why. 所以英语段落的发展多趋向于直线性,推理性。了解中西方思维差异,对解答主旨配对题寻找中心句有较大帮助。

解题策略 1) 常规思路:首句原则

这 种模式是比较传统,也是充分体现西方人的思维。大多数英语文章采用的是演绎法(deductive method), 即先展示一个主题(topic sentence), 然后用具体的细节来支持论证(supporting sentences). 在进行判断第一句是否是中心句时,应该看其后的句子是否是在论证这个中心句。所以我们可以采取假设法的推理原则:假设第一句是中心句,其后的句子应该是按 照演绎的方式在论证。

例1 The role of government in environmental management is difficult but inescapable. Sometimes, the state tries to manage the resources it owns, and does so badly. Often, however, governments act in an even more harmful way. They actually subsidize the exploitation and consumption of natural resources. A whole range of policies, from farm price support to protection for coal-mining, do environmental damage and (often) make no economic sense. Scrapping them offers a two-fold bonus: a cleaner environment and a more efficient economy. Growth and environmentalism can actually go hand in hand, if politicians have the courage to confront the vested interest that subsidies create.  (Cambridge 3 Text 2 passage 2)

Answer: Government and management of the environment

在 这一段中,假设第一句是中心句,可以看出这一句有两个核心词”difficult”, ”inescapable’. 然后其后的句子依次在陈述政府的管理效果及作用所用的词是”so badly”, “more harmful”, “damage” “make no economic sense”, 这些词表明了第一句政府在环境管理的艰难”difficult”, 接下来作者用” two-fold bonus””cleaner environment””more efficient” 等词来说明”inescapable”.可见,后面的支持句的确是在论证第一句。 所以根据这样的推理,从第一句就能得出答案。

2)    逻辑关系做题:转折处原则

这种情况往往伴随着一些逻辑关系词的出现,如while, despite, although, however, instead, rather, but, yet等词。

例2  (剑6 Test1 passage3)

While the Inuit may not actually starve if hunting and trapping are curtailed by climate change, there has certainly been an impact on people’s health. Obesity, heart disease and diabetes are beginning to appear in a people for whom these have never before been problems. There has been a crisis of identity as the traditional skills of hunting, trapping and preparing skins have begun to disappear. In Nunavut’s igloo and email society, where adults who were born in igloos have children who may never have been out on the land, there’s a high incidence of depression.

Answer:  Negative effects on well-being

在 如上的段落中我们根据假设法,可以判断主旨在while引导的句子的主干当中,即there has certainly been an impact on people’s health. 其后的句子都是来说明impact on health. 如obesity, diabetes, high incidence of depression等词都能说明这一点。

再如:例3 (剑6 Test 2 passage 1)

It was once assumed that improvements in telecommunications would lead to more dispersal in the population as people were no longer forced into cities. However, the ISTP team’s research demonstrates that the population and job density of cities rose or remained constant in the 1980s after decades of decline. The explanation for this seems to be that it is valuable to place people working in related fields together. ‘The new world will largely depend on human creativity and creativity flourished where people come together face-to-face.

Answer: The benefit of working together.

这 一段如果按照常规思路做题,会认为第一句便是中心句,容易误选the impact of telecommunication on population distribution 这个标题。然而,在此段落中一个明显的转折词however出现, 使topic 从第一句的improvements in telecommunication 转向 research demonstrates即研究显示的内容,这是属于事实,对于事实后的本质问题在接下来的一句话里充分体现,valuable to place people working together. 所以这段的中心在这一句得以体现。

以上的段落已经体现段落主旨配对出题的趋势之一:颠覆传统的解题技巧—-凡只看段落第一句话便有答案。从西方思维注重直线性和推理性思维,我们在寻找主旨或主题时要充分弄清楚句与句之间的逻辑关系。这样,解题时就不会错选。

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