457雇主担保雅思5分基础语法:被动语态

墨尔本文波雅思的5分班老师细心的为零基础的同学总结了课堂笔记,需要考5分的同学不要错过哦!部分语法基础没打好的6分同学要看哦!

英语被动语态

英语动词有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表示主语是动作的承受者。

一、被动语态的构成
英语动词的被动语态由助动词be+及物动词的过去分词构成。助动词be必须与主语的人称和数量保持一致,并有时态的变化。例如:The man was fooled by the two boys.   The book has been translated into several languages.

二、被动语态的用法
(1)动作的执行者不知道是谁或难以说明时常用被动语态。例如:
Street lights are often turned on at six in winter.    The new test book will be used next term.
(2)当动作的承受者比起动作的执行者来说更能引起人们的关心而需要加以强调时,要用被动语态。例如:
This kind of bicycle is not sold in our shop.    The thief was caught by a policeman yesterday.
(3)含有双宾语的句子,主动句中的间接宾语或者直接宾语都可变为被动语态中的一个主语,另一个保留不变。变为主语的若是主动句中的直接宾语在变为间接宾语前则需加介词to 或for。
例如:The pianist gave the pupils(间接宾语)some advice(直接宾语)
→The pupils were given some advice by the pianist.  →Some advice was given to the pupils by the pianist.
(4)在主动语态句中动词make、have、let、see、watch、hear、feel等后接动词不定式作宾语补足语,动词不定式不加to。但变成被动语态时后面的不定式都须加上to。
例如:The boss made them work ten hours a day.   →They were made to work ten hours a day.
A boy saw him enter the house.            →He was seen to enter the house.

三、被动语态的时态
五种时态的被动语态及带有情态动词的被动语态。
一般现在时   构成:助动词be + 动词的过去分词   例如:This kind of car is made in shanghai.

一般过去时   构成:助动词was/were + 动词的过去分词    例如:The bridge was built in 1992.
现在进行时   构成:be + being + 动词的过去分词          例如:A new bridge is being built in my hometown.
过去进行时   构成:was/were + being + 动词的过去分词

一般将来时   构成:will/be going to do + be + 动词的过去分词   例如:These books are going to be posted tomorrow.

过去将来时   构成:would/was(were )going to do + be + 动词的过去分词

现在完成时   构成:助动词have/has + been + 动词的过去分词   例如:Has his work been finished?
过去完成时   构成:助动词had + been + 动词的过去分词

带有情态动词的被动语态    构成:情态动词 + be + 动词的过去分词    例如:Can this walkman be repaired here?

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