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What does it mean to be a Canadian? Comedian John Wing has defined Canadian as an unarmed American with good health care. In fact, citizenship in Canada confers some distinctive rights that have generated scholarly interest. In 1982, Canadian charter of Rights and Freedoms recognised not just rights of individuals, but also rights of particular communities. For example, official language minorities are given rights, and specific rights of indigenous people are protected. This Canadian recognition of group rights, what’s known as differentiated citizenship has attracted international attention. Proponents of differentiated citizenship typically argue that in a diverse country, equality and belonging can only be fully realised where individual rights coexisted with group rights. Population diversity is a global issue, UNESCO suggests 85 to 90% of world states are ethnically heterogeneous. Canada has been at the forefront in recognising and debating differentiated citizenship. Thus, the Canadian experience whether for better or worse matters internationally as many nation-states grapple with how best to address a diverse citizenry.