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Light is important to organisms for two different reasons.
a cue for… 对于…的一个暗示
Firstly, light is used as a cue for the timing of daily and seasonal rhythms in both plants and animals, and secondly it is used to assist growth in plants.
trigger breeding behavior 引发繁殖/生育行为
A reliable cue is needed to trigger breeding behaviour.
fluctuate greatly from day to day 每天变化都很大
In the temperate zone in spring, temperatures fluctuate greatly from day to day.
differ from species to species 各个物种间差异很大
In both cases the critical day length differs from species to species.
build up 累积
Food reserves must be built up to support the energy cost of reproduction, and to provide for young birds both when they are in the nest and after fledging.
flower, fruit and die 开花，结果，死亡
Bamboos are perennial grasses that remain in a vegetative state for many years and then suddenly flower, fruit and die.
be divided into… groups: 分为…几类
shade-tolerant species 喜阴植物
Photosynthesis is the process by which plants use energy from the sun to convert carbon from soil or water into organic material for growth.