上周，AlphaGo赢了世界顶级的Go player，Lee Sedol，接踵而来的是人们的探讨，究竟人工智能会给我们的生活带来怎样的变化？或者说人工智能有什么优缺点？今天结合雅思写作人工智能话题，墨尔本文波雅思PTE的小编给大家讲讲一些pros and cons of artificial intelligence。
Intelligence is best defined as the ability of an individual to adapt his/her behavior to new circumstances. Human intelligence is not a single ability but is rather a composition of abilities like learning, reasoning, problem solving, perception, and understanding of language.
AI researchers hope to develop intelligent machines, which can perceive, learn and reason like humans. General intelligence is their long-term goal. By general intelligence they mean to incorporate other aspects like social intelligence, judgment, common sense, robotics, and self-awareness into machines. Researchers dream of bringing into machines, factors such as wisdom and the ability to feel, which only humans possess.
▸ With artificial intelligence, the chances of error are almost nil and greater precision and accuracy is achieved.
▸ Artificial intelligence finds applications in space exploration. Intelligent robots can be used to explore space. They are machines and hence have the ability to endure the hostile environment of the interplanetary space. They can be made to adapt in such a way that planetary atmospheres do not affect their physical state and functioning.
▸ Intelligent robots can be programmed to reach the Earth’s nadirs. They can be used to dig for fuels. They can be used for mining purposes. The intelligence of machines can be harnessed for exploring the depths of oceans. These machines can be of use in overcoming the limitations that humans have.
▸ Intelligent machines can replace human beings in many areas of work. Robots can do certain laborious tasks. Painstaking activities, which have long been carried out by humans can be taken over by the robots. Owing to the intelligence programmed in them, the machines can shoulder greater responsibilities and can be programmed to manage themselves.
▸ Smartphones are a great example of the application of artificial intelligence. In utilities like predicting what a user is going to type and correcting human errors in spelling, machine intelligence is at work. Applications like Siri that act as personal assistants, GPS and Maps applications that give users the best or the shortest routes to take as well as the traffic and time estimates to reach there, use artificial intelligence. Applications on phones or computers that predict user actions and also make recommendations that suit user choice, are applications of AI. Thus, we see that artificial intelligence has made daily life a lot easier.
▸ Fraud detection in smart card-based systems is possible with the use of AI. It is also employed by financial institutions and banks to organize and manage records.
▸ Organizations use avatars that are digital assistants who interact with the users, thus saving the need of human resources.
▸ One of the main disadvantages of artificial intelligence is the cost incurred in the maintenance and repair. Programs need to be updated to suit the changing requirements, and machines need to be made smarter. In case of a breakdown, the cost of repair may be very high. Procedures to restore lost code or data may be time-consuming and costly.
▸ An important concern regarding the application of artificial intelligence is about ethics and moral values. Is it ethically correct to create replicas of human beings? Do our moral values allow us to recreate intelligence? Intelligence is a gift of nature. It may not be right to install it into a machine to make it work for our benefit.
▸ If robots begin to replace humans in every field, it will eventually lead to unemployment. People will be left with nothing to do. So much empty time may result in its destructive use. Thinking machines will govern all the fields and populate the positions that humans occupy, leaving thousands of people jobless.
▸ Also, due to the reduced need to use their intelligence, lateral thinking and multitasking abilities of humans may diminish. With so much assistance from machines, if humans do not need to use their thinking abilities, these abilities will gradually decline. With the heavy application of artificial intelligence, humans may become overly dependent on machines, losing their mental capacities.
▸ If the control of machines goes in the wrong hands, it may cause destruction. Machines won’t think before acting. Thus, they may be programmed to do the wrong things, or for mass destruction.
▸ Apart from all these cons of AI, there is a fear of robots superseding humans. Ideally, human beings should continue to be the masters of machines. However, if things turn the other way round, the world will turn into chaos. Intelligent machines may prove to be smarter than us, they might enslave us and start ruling the world.
It should be understood that artificial intelligence has several pros but it has its disadvantages as well. Its benefits and risks should be carefully weighed before employing it for human convenience. Or, in the greed to play God, man may destroy himself.